By Prof. Dr. Jacob Sybenga (auth.)
An introductory dialogue of uncomplicated chromosome constitution and serve as preceeds the most textual content at the software of cytogenetic methods to the research of the manipulation of either the genetic makeup and the genetic transmission procedure of plant breeding fabric. research utilizing mild and electron microscopy, segregations and molecular concepts, yields details for assessing the cloth earlier than and after manipulation. a lot awareness is given to quantitative equipment. Manipulation not just includes the development of particular genotypes, but additionally chromosomal transmission structures. even if research and manipulation within the somatic cycle are thought of, the point of interest is at the generative cycle, with emphasis on research and next segregation of in particular developed fabric. The e-book is meant for plant breeders and different scientists attracted to the research and manipulation of breeding fabric on the chromosomal point. Comparisons with molecular and cellphone organic techniques are made, and the potential for some of the tools is evaluated.
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Additional info for Cytogenetics in Plant Breeding
1985; McIntosh 1985). They are hollow cylinders of about 25 nm in cross-section after glutaraldehyde fixation, but of only 15 nm after osmium tetroxide fixation. The cylinders are composed mainly of 3-4 nm dimers of tubulin, arranged in 10-13 slightly slanting (1020°) threads around a hollow center. Tubulin comes in two basic forms: a and ~, each of about 55 kDa. They differ somewhat in amino acid composition and phosphorylation, and consequently in electrophoretic properties. The dimers are probably predominantly of a-~ composition, less frequently of aa or ~~.
In most organisms, each chromosome has one, but it has a compound structure. When active during nuclear division, the central part contains a proteinaceous element, the kinetochore. The kinetochore provides for the attachment and possibly some regulation of the microtubules that regulate or partly effect the movements of the chromosomes in mitosis and meiosis (see Sects. 2). Microtubules may have a variety of functions in the organism, especially in higher animals, but when attached to kinetochores, they exclusively serve to regulate the forces required for chromosomal movement.
The origin of B-chromosomes is uncertain. Because of their occasional effect on sex determination, their occasional meiotic association with sex chromosomes and their heterochromatic appearance, it has been suggested that in animals they have been derived from sex chromosomes. In plants this is not possible in monoecious species. The parallel between their system of non-disjunction and the tendency to non-synchronous centromere split in some species hybrids might suggest that B-chromosomes may be altered alien chromosomes derived from interspecific introgression, followed by loss of active genes and accumulation of properties that favour their special behaviour.