By Wolfgang Künne
Fact is among the so much debated themes in philosophy; Wolfgang K?nne provides a finished serious exam of all significant theories, from Aristotle to the current day. He argues that it really is attainable to provide a passable 'modest' account of fact with out invoking challenging notions like correspondence, truth, or which means. The readability of exposition and the wealth of examples will make Conceptions of fact a useful and stimulating consultant for complex scholars and students.
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Dieß hindert uns aber doch nicht, von Wahrheiten an sich als solchen zu reden, in deren Begriffe noch gar nicht vorausgesetzt wird, daß sie von irgend Jemand gedacht werden müßten. Denn wenn dieß Gedachtwerden auch nicht in dem Begriffe solcher Wahrheiten liegt: so kann es gleichwohl aus einem anderen Umstande (nämlich aus Gottes Allwissenheit) folgen, daß sie, wenn sonst von Niemand, wenigstens von Gott selbst erkannt werden müssen. [It follows indeed from God’s omniscience that each truth is known to him, even if it is not recognized nor even thought by any other being.
It is plain that it makes for happiness to believe that they exist—for even the greatest misanthropist would not wish to be deprived of the objects of his hate. Hence the belief that other people exist is, pragmatically, a true belief. But if I am troubled by solipsism, the discovery that a belief in the existence of others is ‘true’ in the pragmatist’s sense is not enough to allay my sense of loneliness: the perception that I should proﬁt by rejecting solipsism is not alone sufﬁcient to make me reject it.
So let me pause to elaborate. The demands on ‘is F’ in tenets of the form ‘for all x, x is true iff x is F’ can be of various strengths, ranging from absolutely minimal to absolutely maximal. This predicate may be required to express (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) a concept that is co-extensive with the truth concept; a concept that is necessarily co-extensive with it; a concept that can be known a priori to be co-extensive with it; a concept that is self-evidently co-extensive with it; the same concept as is expressed by ‘true’.