By Trevor Kletz
, Pages iii-iv
, Page vii
, Pages 1-2
1 - a few incidents that experience happened, as a rule in computer-controlled procedure plants
, Pages 3-44
2 - danger and operability (hazop) stories utilized to computer-controlled method plants
, Pages 45-80
3 - the explanations why computer-controlled platforms fail
, Pages 81-113
, Pages 114-116
, Pages 117-120
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Additional info for Computer Control and Human Error
9 During the Hazop of computer-controlled plants we should consider the results of errors in entering data. Accidental entering of wrong data can be minimized, as already stated, by requiring operators to carry out at least two operations — for example, entering figures and then moving a cursor. Standards should be written and vendors chosen so that a computer will reject or query data or instructions that are outside specified ranges, deviate more than a specified amount from the existing value, or fail consistency tests.
However, it would be difficult to tell the computer that the valve is open when the signal says it is shut! A computer provides new opportunities for familiar communication errors. 33 COMPUTER CONTROL AND HUMAN ERROR This incident, like most of those described in this book, was not really the result of using a computer. It was the result of an unsatisfactory method of preparing equipment for maintenance — a frequent cause of accidents on plants of all sorts52. The incident could have occurred on manual control if the operator had forgotten that the switches were interchanged.
31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. Association, Brussels, Belgium. , 1990, IEEE Software, 1 (6): 55. , 1991, Plant Design for Safety —A User-Friendly Approach (Hemisphere, New York). US Department of Energy, 1989, Errors in Commercial Software Increase Potential for Process Piping Failures, Bulletin No 89-B. , 1992, private communication. , 1994, Atom, 433: 34. , 1994, Atom, 433: 39. G. , 1993, IEEE Computer, 26 (7): 18. Institution of Chemical Engineers, 1994, Slide Training Package No.