Collection of Liu Yuxi (Chinese classical literature series) by 卞孝萱

By 卞孝萱

刘禹锡(772~842),唐代文学家、哲学家。字梦得。洛阳(今属河南)人,祖籍中山(今河北定县)。他是匈奴族后裔,七世祖刘亮随魏孝文帝迁洛阳,始改汉姓。父刘绪因避安史之乱,举族东迁,寓居嘉兴(今属浙江)。刘禹锡出生在嘉兴,19岁左右游学长安。贞元九年与柳宗元同榜登进士第,接着又登宏词科。贞元十一年登吏部取士科,授太子校书,开始踏上仕途。贞元十六年入杜佑幕掌书记,参与讨伐徐州乱军。十八年调任渭南县主簿。次年任监察御史。贞元二十一年(当年八月改元永贞)一月,德宗死,顺宗即位,任用王叔文等人推行一系列改革弊政的措施。

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Sample text

I argue in this book and especially in this first part that the characteristic problem of the relationship is that it is shaped by asymmetry. Simply describing the relationship without observing the assymetry would be like comparing two fractions by looking at their numerators but not at their denominators. The basic structure of the Sino-Vietnamese relationship is set by the general situation of each of its two actors and by the disparity of their relationship. Thus, this first chapter of the section discusses the parameters of China’s external posture, the second discusses the parameters of Vietnam’s external posture, and the third discusses the asymmetries of their relationship.

In domestic policy Vietnam defined an ambitious program of strengthening socialism in the north and pushing the south to catch up. 7 billion in reparations promised from the United States by Richard Nixon. In foreign policy, Vietnam attempted to redefine its international relations from the standpoint of independence and enhanced prestige. China, by contrast, saw the end of the war as an end to the priority that Vietnam had held in Chinese foreign affairs. China expected Vietnam to act as a grateful client and to reduce its ties to the Soviet Union, but without much additional investment on China’s part.

Despite progress in regional and global integration, however, the normal relationship between China and Vietnam is not simply a carbon copy of relations with other countries. It remains an asymmetric relationship and therefore a pair of unique sub-relationships. China can be expected to pursue economic opportunities in Vietnam while avoiding becoming the patron in a patron-client relationship. It will be insensitive to the material threat posed to Vietnam by its larger and more prosperous economy and will perceive Vietnamese efforts to control the growth of the relationship as irrational and anti-Chinese.

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