Classical Conditioning and Operant Conditioning: A Response by Wendon W. Henton, Iver H. Iversen (auth.)

By Wendon W. Henton, Iver H. Iversen (auth.)

Since the looks of the treatise on "Schedules of Reinforcement" by way of Ferster and Skinner over 20 years in the past, the literature in habit research, either experimental and utilized, has been ruled by way of quite a number reports dedi­ cated to offering ever extra systematic and subtle bills of those "mainsprings of habit keep an eye on. " For the main half, the research has been pursued within the most sensible traditions of "scientific technique" with cautious atten­ tion to the isolation of controlling variables in unitary shape. Of past due, particularly uncomplicated interplay results have supplied a tremendous extra concentration for extra subtle analyses. it's transparent, in spite of the fact that, from even a cursory survey of the huge examine and conceptual research that's represented during this scholarly quantity by way of Henton and Iversen that the skin ofthis complicated "be­ havioral interactions" area has slightly been scratched. the first concentration of this pioneering attempt extends the competing reaction research throughout all experimental schedules, either classical and instrumental, in addition to the interactions among the 2. adequately, the research empha­ sizes overt behavioral interactions, starting with the best case of 1 operant and one respondent, and necessarily implicating extra assorted and refined interactions. because the research expands to incorporate interactions among a number of recorded responses, a growing number of exact empirical standards ofrecip­ rocal interactions in reaction chances are published independently of con­ ventional procedural labels (i. e. , operants, respondents, collaterals, adjunc­ tives, and so forth. ) and standard theoretical distinctions.

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Jones (1924a, 1924b) described a series of experiments in which stimuli eliciting emotional responses were carefully paired with eating maintained at a relatively constant rate by bits of candy. In impressive anticipation of subsequent procedures and interpretations, Jones reported that (1) the rate of eating could be disrupted by the responses elicited by the fear stimulus, or, with slightly different procedures, (2) the elicited fear responses could be reduced by eating. Jones (1924a) suggested that both the deleterious and beneficial effects were due to an interaction between two competing response systems controlled by fear objects and craving objects.

1960), among many others (reviews by Grossman, 1967; Young, 1943, 1973). Classical Conditioning "Anxiety is here defined as an emotional state arising in response to some current stimulus which in the past has been followed by a disturbing stimulus" Chapter 1: Review of Classical-Operant Conditioning 23 (Estes and Skinner, 1941). The second characteristic defining anxiety offered by Estes and Skinner was that the emotional state is established by classical conditioning, but with the added proviso that the reaction to the es is not necessarily the same reaction elicited by the ues.

1960), among many others (reviews by Grossman, 1967; Young, 1943, 1973). Classical Conditioning "Anxiety is here defined as an emotional state arising in response to some current stimulus which in the past has been followed by a disturbing stimulus" Chapter 1: Review of Classical-Operant Conditioning 23 (Estes and Skinner, 1941). The second characteristic defining anxiety offered by Estes and Skinner was that the emotional state is established by classical conditioning, but with the added proviso that the reaction to the es is not necessarily the same reaction elicited by the ues.

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