By John E. Wills Jr.
China and Maritime Europe, 1500-1800 appears to be like at early glossy China in a few of its most intricate and exciting kinfolk with an international of accelerating worldwide interconnection. New global silver, chinese language tea, Jesuit astronomers on the chinese language courtroom, and retailers and marauders of all types play vital roles the following. even supposing items of those tales were advised prior to, those chapters give you the fullest and clearest to be had summaries, in keeping with resources in chinese language and in eu languages, making this knowledge available to scholars and students attracted to the transforming into connections between continents and civilizations within the early smooth interval.
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Extra info for China and Maritime Europe, 1500-1800: Trade, Settlement, Diplomacy, and Missions
Western Zhou’s control over these city-states declined after it was compelled to relocate its capital eastward in 770 bce, in part to escape the pressure of the pastoral tribes that had migrated into China in earlier centuries. With the decline of the Western Zhou dynasty, these city-states were embroiled in constant warfare for over five hundred years. The earlier clashes were mostly minor, largely because the states involved did not yet have standing armies or resources adequate to support a large-scale war, and also because the states’ behavior was restrained by the nature of interstate relations at the time.
If one points out the inward-looking characteristic of the Chinese empires,42 one will be reminded of the military expeditions along frontier areas during the early Tang and early Ming dynasties and that the Qing rulers retained some of their nomadic characteristics and actively involved themselves in Inner Asian geopolitics. Objections to the other historical patterns that I have posed as research questions can likewise be formulated. Emphasizing the temporal and regional variations in Chinese history is important.
If available, I also noted the numbers of warriors involved and the death tolls. 58 (2) Most battlegrounds of the late Eastern Zhou period are known; not so for those of many early Eastern Zhou military conflicts. In the latter case, the distance from the capital of the aggressor state to the capital of the state being attacked represents the war distance. 59 (3) For a war involving more than two states, the war distance was the distance between the two most powerful adversaries, measured according to the above two criteria.