Avoiding Static Ignition Hazards in Chemical Operations by Laurence G. Britton

By Laurence G. Britton

Written via Laurence Britton, who has over twenty years' event within the fields of static ignition and procedure fireplace and explosion dangers study, this source addresses a space no longer largely lined in technique defense criteria or literature: figuring out and decreasing power risks linked to static electrical energy. The e-book covers the character of static electrical energy, features and powerful energies of alternative static assets, options for comparing static electrical energy dangers, normal bonding, grounding, and different ideas used to regulate static or hinder ignition, gases and drinks, powders and hybrid combinations.

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Sample text

5 to 75 kV [37]. 3). Brush discharges were obtained at all smaller charge densities provided the charging voltage was at least 5 kV. Rubbing the plastic with felt cloth produced 1–30 mC/m2, the largest charge densities being obtained with the thinnest layers. This is only about one tenth the surface charge density required for a PBD. Charge accumulation was limited by corona discharge in the gap between the charged layer 28 2. FUNDAMENTALS OF STATIC ELECTRICITY and the oppositely charged cloth.

5). 79%) of its initial value, t (hence r or k) 2. FUNDAMENTALS OF STATIC ELECTRICITY 15 can be found using Eqs. 7). 5 /ln 2. Half-value time is distinguished from radioactive half-life since, unlike the latter, it can readily be modified (4-2). 7) for Qt and Eqs. 8) for t are used extensively in static hazard analysis. 4). 1. Variability of Conductivity When a voltage is applied to a dielectric (insulator), a current passes that decays with time owing to various polarization mechanisms [133]. Conductivity is always time-dependent.

2 µC and maximum charge transfers are less than 1 µC. The discharges appear as a “brush” composed of streamers which converge into a single radiant channel close to the electrode (Plate 2). This channel has the highest power density within the discharge and it is here that ignition takes place [8]. Brush discharge energy increases with increased electrode diameter since the surface charge density must be greater before breakdown occurs at the electrode. 3). 7. 1 the effective energy of a positive brush should be roughly proportional to Q.

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