By John Lowry
This vital booklet lays naked the hazards of worldwide warming attributable to carbon dioxide emissions stemming from fossil gasoline use, and proposes pathways towards mitigation. A dialogue of the present major makes use of of fossil fuels acts as a foundation for proposing potential, economically sound choices. the writer outlines a transparent, useful approach for developing a carbon-free destiny through deploying confirmed coverage buildings and applied sciences which are already commercially to be had.
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Extra resources for Avoiding Carbon Apocalypse Through Alternative Energy: Life After Fossil Fuels
This is because an owner’s costs will vary hugely, most of all according to whether a plant is on a greenﬁeld site or at an established site, perhaps replacing an old plant. Mid-2008 vendor ﬁgures for overnight costs (excluding owner’s costs) for some plants2 have been quoted as about USD 3000 per kW. There are also decommissioning costs, which have been estimated at 9–15% of capital costs. Fuel costs for nuclear plants are a minor proportion of the total generating costs, though capital costs for nuclear plants are greater than those for coal-ﬁred plants and much greater than those for gas-ﬁred plants.
There are about 100 million tonnes of agricultural waste produced annually in the USA. 5% of total global potential has been tapped so far, while the IPCC reported geothermal power potential to be in the range of 35 GW to 2 TW. Countries generating more than 15% of their electricity from geothermal sources include El Salvador, Kenya, the Philippines, Iceland and Costa Rica. Estimates of the electricity-generating potential of geothermal energy vary from 35 to 2000 GW. This is not sufﬁcient to replace fossil fuel-generated electricity, but it could certainly make a useful contribution.
An early example of solar thermal power according to legend is when Archimedes planned to burn the Roman fleet by concentrating the sun’s rays onto the invading Roman fleet and repel them from Syracuse. In 1973, a Greek scientist, Dr Ioannis Sakkas, curious about whether Archimedes could really have destroyed the Roman fleet in 212 BC, lined up nearly 60 Greek sailors, each holding an oblong mirror tipped to catch the sun’s rays and directed them at a tar-covered plywood silhouette 160 feet away.