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Extra info for Artificial Intelligence in Label-free Microscopy. Biological Cell Classification by Time Stretch
2 Principle of Hybrid Dispersion Laser Scanner The concept of HDLS relies on the transformation from spectral to temporal and spatial domains, respectively (Fig. 1). First, by a process called dispersive Fourier transformation [10, 45, 47, 66, 67] based on group-velocity dispersion, the spectra of broadband optical pulses of a mode-locked laser are mapped into temporal waveforms. Then, a spatial dispersive element such as a diffraction grating or a virtually imaged phased array (VIPA) maps the spectrum of chirped pulses onto a line over the object such that different wavelength components hit the target at different positions and times.
The reflected pulses are interfered with the reference pulses in a Michelson interferometer, resulting in the spectral interference between the test and reference pulses. 2 Experimental Demonstration 17 Fig. 1 Schematic of the STEAM vibrometer. The principle of the method is three-fold: (1) encoding of the lateral and axial coordinates of the target into the different frequencies and corresponding amplitudes of a spatially dispersed broadband pulse which spectrally interferes with a reference pulse, (2) amplified dispersive Fourier transformation in which the spectrum is mapped into a temporal waveform, time stretched so that it can be digitized in real time, and simultaneously amplified in the optical domain, and (3) Hilbert transformation on the detected pulse in the digital domain to extract the axial information of the target and axial coordinates of the target are encoded into the different frequencies and corresponding amplitudes of each back-reflected spatially dispersed pulse, respectively.
As such, the simultaneous measurement of refractive index and size of cells would be predicted to provide two independent parameters for cell classification. In this chapter, we propose a fast and high-precision optical cell density and size measurement method based on serial time-encoded amplified microscopy (STEAM) . STEAM is a continuous imaging technique that captures tens of million frames-per-second with sub-nanosecond shutter speed. However, earlier versions of STEAM were dependent on cell labeling due to low intensity contrast of individual cells .