By National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology, Committee on Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology
The recent box of toxicogenomics provides a possibly strong set of instruments to higher comprehend the healthiness results of exposures to toxicants within the atmosphere. on the request of the nationwide Institute of Environmental well-being Sciences, the nationwide study Council assembled a committee to spot the advantages of toxicogenomics, the demanding situations to reaching them, and power techniques to overcoming such demanding situations. The file concludes that figuring out the opportunity of toxicogenomics to enhance public well-being judgements would require a concerted attempt to generate facts, utilize present information, and learn information in new ways--an attempt requiring investment, interagency coordination, and information administration concepts.
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Extra info for Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment
As technology continues to advance, so will the analyses of genome variations and their roles in humans’ different responses to chemicals and other environmental factors. Genome Sequencing Technologies High-throughput gene sequencing began when Sanger and colleagues introduced dideoxynucleotide sequencing in 1977 (Sanger et al. 1977). 6 million base pairs (bp) per day (Chan 2005). These instruments have become the principal engines of genome sequencing projects. Despite the impressive advances in technology, the cost of genome sequencing remains a barrier to the application of whole-genome sequencing to study individual variation in toxic responses and susceptibility.
Animal models and genome-wide human studies should be used to identify genetic variations that influence sensitivity to chemicals, using existing large human studies when possible to investigate the effect of genetic variations on responses to a wide array of chemical exposures and pharmaceutical therapies. More attention should be focused on modeling effects involving multiple genes and the study of context-dependent genetic effects (that is, gene-gene interactions as well as the impact of developmental age, sex, and life course).
Paucity of accurate information on human exposure levels. • Relevance of animal data to humans—quantitative or qualitative. • Paucity of information on the relationship between dose and response, especially at low doses relevant to human environmental exposures. • Inconsistent animal-bioassay data on different species—differential responses in varied animal test models. • Paucity of information or inconsistencies in data on different exposures, particularly exposure during development and early-life exposures or by varied routes of exposure (inhalation, diet, drinking water).