All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali His Army and the Making of by Khaled Fahmy

By Khaled Fahmy

Whereas scholarship has generally seen Mehmed Ali Pasha because the founding father of glossy Egypt, Khaled Fahmy deals a brand new interpretation of his position within the upward thrust of Egyptian nationalism, firmly finding him in the Ottoman context as an bold, if difficult, Ottoman reformer. Basing his paintings on formerly missed archival fabric, the writer demonstrates how Mehmed Ali sought to improve the Egyptian economic system and to accumulate the military, no longer as a method of gaining Egyptian independence from the Ottoman empire, yet to extra his personal goals for famous hereditary rule over the province. through concentrating on the military and the soldier’s day-by-day reviews, the writer constructs a close photograph of makes an attempt at modernization and reform, how they have been deliberate and carried out via a number of reformers, and the way the general public at huge understood and accommodated them. during this means, the paintings contributes to the bigger methodological and theoretical debates referring to nation-building and the development of kingdom energy within the specific context of early nineteenth-century Egypt.

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It has been argued that wars are essential for the creation of the nation,83 and that "to make the citizen a soldier is to give him a sense of duty to the country and the consciousness of doing it which, if spread through the whole population, will convert it into . . 85 Second, all modern armies are a microcosm of their larger societies in a crucial sense: by erecting and maintaining clear distinctions (in dress, pay, rights and duties) between soldiers and officers and in sharpening distinctions within each group by an elaborate hierarchical structure, armies reflect the class divisions within society at large.

As a model [which] could be exactly reproduced abroad . . "82 What we are offered here is a concise history of the idea of discipline as formulated by British (and Egyptian) educationalists and not a historical account of the performance of 81 82 For an interesting critique of Mitchell along these lines see Sami Zubaida, "Exhibitions of power," Economy and Society, 19(1990), p. 359-75, where he specifically criticizes him for "running a contrast between a modernity identified with an aggressive colonial order, and an older order which had been read and misunderstood, and as such re-read by [Mitchell] often in rosy light": p.

For the novelty of Mitchell's Colonising Egypt lies in its ability to show the peculiarity of the process of introducing "modern" institutions in Egypt, a process that has been taken so much for granted and mistaken so often as humanist, progressive reform, and in showing how these "reforms" were a result of a modern conception of power that was both corporal and disciplinary (in the Foucauldian sense) and which was also metaphysical and representational. For him the colonization of Egypt is not to be understood in the traditional manner of the process of structuring 77 Timothy Mitchell, Colonising Egypt (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988).

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