By Alexander, Mark Mindess, Sidney
Bringing jointly in a single quantity the most recent study and knowledge, this publication presents a detailed consultant to the choice and use of aggregates in concrete. After an creation defining the aim and position of aggregates in concrete, the authors current an summary of combination assets and creation strategies, via a close examine in their actual, mechanical and chemical houses. this data is then utilized to using aggregates in either plastic and hardened concretes, and within the total combine layout. distinct aggregates and their purposes are mentioned intimately, as are the present major standards, criteria and checks.
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Extra resources for Aggregates in Concrete (Modern concrete technology series 13)
On the other hand, many natural aggregates are sourced from fresh hard rock quarries, and require blasting and crushing to produce engineering materials. The various sources of natural aggregates and the production processes necessary to render the raw materials acceptable for use in concrete will be covered briefly. The interested reader should consult detailed texts for further information on aggregate production (Sims and Barksdale, 1998, and references therein; Brown, 1991; Smith and Collis, 2001).
Modern equipment such as gyratory and cone crushers and rod mills tend to produce better particle shapes. Washing and scrubbing may also be required for crushed aggregates. Rock properties that influence the quality of the crushed product are hardness, fracture toughness, structure (fine- or coarse-grained or laminar), moisture content, and homogeneity. 8 Schematic diagrams of some types of crusher; solid shading highlights hardened wear-resistant elements: (a) single-toggle jaw crusher; (b) disc or gyrosphere crusher; (c) gyratory crusher; and (d) impact crusher (reprinted from Sims and Brown, 1998 ©1997, with permission from Elsevier).
5 (Continued) Natural aggregate sources and production 33 Sources and production of natural aggregates Natural aggregates are obtained from a variety of sources. Almost invariably, the sources of aggregate must be as close as possible to their demand locality, due to the large tonnage of aggregate used in concrete and the high cost of transportation. Use of special aggregates that require unusual sourcing or long transportation distances is rare, and technical or engineering requirements have to outweigh additional costs in these cases.