By George Hidy (Auth.)
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Extra info for Aerosols. An Industrial and environmental science
Particles can experience external influences induced by forces other than electrical or gravitational fields. Differences in gas t e m p e r a t u r e or v a p o r concentration can induce particle motion. Electromagnetic radiation can also p r o d u c e m o v e m e n t . Such phoretic p r o c e s s e s w e r e observed experimen tally by the late nineteenth c e n t u r y . F o r e x a m p l e , in his experiments on particles, Tyndall (1870) described the cleaning of dust from air surrounding hot surfaces.
T h e agitation and migration of small colloidal particles has b e e n k n o w n since the w o r k of R o b e r t B r o w n in the early nineteenth c e n t u r y . This thermal motion is likened to the diffusion of gas molecules in a nonuniform gas. T h e applicability of F i c k ' s equations for the diffusion of particles in a fluid has b e e n accepted widely after the w o r k of Einstein (1905) and others in the early 1900s. T h e theory of Brownian diffu sion has b e e n reviewed in detail by Hidy and Brock (1970) and will not be repeated h e r e .
Noo i s th e particl e c o n c e n t r a t i o n fa r fro m th e wall . T h u s /2 j = N„(D p/nty . 54) / w h e r e an are t h e positive roots of t h e Bessel function Jo(an, a) = 0. In the c a s e of particle diffusion from a stagnant m e d i u m to the outer surface of a s p h e r e of radius a, the total n u m b e r of particles a b s o r b e d p e r unit time is D P( H ΦΡ = 4 W = 4W D po N . ( l + j ^ j . 55) Over a time interval Δ/, t h e n u m b e r of particles collected on t h e sphere p e r unit a r e a is 2 J OΦ Ρ dt = 4παΟρΝ„[Δί + ( π γ η ) · Β 2 deposited p e r unit area is the T h u s w h e n a IDp > At, the n u m b e r of particles same as for a flat wall.