By Peter W. Hawkes
The 2 chapters that fill this quantity describe instruments for learning the brightness of electron beams and for analysing the homes of mass spectrometers.
First, L.D. Duffy and A.J. Dragt introduce the idea that of eigen-emittance. 3 kinematic invariants are linked to charged-particle beams, in linear shipping mode. those invariants are referred to as eigen-emittances and a examine in their homes makes it attainable to tailor the beam to slot the appliance in query. the idea relies at the suggestion of sym-plectic beam delivery, an issue on which A.J. Dragt has already contributed to those Advances (Advances in Electronics & Electron Physics, sixty seven, 1986, 65—120, with E. Forest). The authors first recapitulate the fundamental idea prior to explaining how the emittance might be tailored as required. the rest of the bankruptcy, which shape a brief treatise at the topic, provides a number of applications.
In the second one bankruptcy, I. Spivak-Lavrov describes at size methods of analysing the houses of either static and time-of-flight mass spectrometers and of devising new designs. The optics of those tools is decided out intimately, in an try to make the object self-contained. a lot Russian paintings is stated, usually from journals that aren't to be had in English translation and sometimes, are usually not largely on hand open air their nations of starting place.
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Extra info for Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 193
Now, many packages of applied software programs that allow the simulation of the behavior of charged particle beams in various rather difficult corpuscular optical systems (COS) have been created. One of the best-known packages is the SIMION program (Scientific Instrument Services, Ringoes, NJ), which is used by many researchers. However, the complete rejection of analytical methods has not resulted in significant progress in the creation of new highly effective COS. Past experience shows that usually the most fruitful ideas in CO began from original theoretical works.
In the calculations, these equations are integrated numerically together with differential equations for an axial trajectory, which allows one to achieve high accuracy of calculations. 2, general focusing and dispersive properties of COS possessing the mean plane are considered, and in particular, the proof of the magnetic flux theorem is provided. It is known that in the calculation of electronic mirrors, there are mathematical difficulties connected with the fact that near the turning points, the radius of curvature of particle trajectories approach zero, and the inclinations Analytical Methods for the Calculation and Simulation 49 of trajectories to an optical axis and the relative energy spread of particles approach infinity.
This must be done in a controlled way so that the nonlinear process does not significantly increase the eigenemittance values. One method, first suggested by Peterson (1983), is to pass Utilizing the Eigen-Emittance Concept for Bright Electron Beams 37 the beam through a tapered foil. In such a foil, scattering will cause particles in the beam to lose longitudinal momentum in proportion to the thickness of the foil traversed. The taper in the foil will thus induce a correlation between the longitudinal momentum and a transverse direction.